By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is without doubt one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic relatives (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken by way of nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and through at the least an identical variety of audio system in Turkey and a few center east nations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and via its minimum vocalic process: merely vowels. notwithstanding Abkhaz used to be studied through a couple of students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply okay. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many facets of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless need to be correctly defined. Abkhaz is the one West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical sessions, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in classification of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative development being represented no longer through case endings, as in comparable Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet by way of order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed frequently of 1 consonant, preceded via a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and via few suffixes. Verbs might be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical comic strip of Abkhaz contains information regarding its phonological process, morphology, and syntax. a quick textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Additional resources for Abkhaz
Ja-nak0ars-! 0a 'slightly touching'. ja-k"'ajcij-wa 'glittering'. c. Reduplication of the Same (ca, cb) or of Different Stems (cd): ca. t 0a 'often', xaz-xaz;j 'separately', air/a-air/a 'with difficulty'' ak'-ak'a 'one by one'. X0ac"(a)-x 0ac";j 'little by little'' mac"-mac"'little by little' . cb. a 'all around' ( < a-k"'+Sa-ra 'to go around'), aa-f:J+g 0asa-f:J+g0a ' nearby'(< ia+j+g 0a 'near'). cd. xara-lly'ira 'dispersedly' ' waxanla-C;in/a 'twenty-four hours'' d. Conversion: Adjective> Adverb: a-las 'quick' > /ass;i 'quickly', a-ck'a 'clean'> ck'a 'clearly', [a-]aajg 0a 'near'> aajg 0a 'nearby; recently'; Postposition> Adverb: a-c'aq'a 'under'> c'aq'li 'below'.
Khiba). Abkhaz. - Lingua Descriptive Studies, vol. 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 283 pp. 1979a. Aspects of Verbal Affixation in Abkhaz (Abzui Dialect). In: Transactions of the Philological Society, p. 211-238. 1982. 'Anti-Passive' and 'Labile' Constructions in North Caucasian. In: General linguistics, vol. 22, No. 3, p. 158-171. 1984. Parataxis revisited (via the Caucasus). In : General Linguistics, vol. 24, No. 1, p. 1-20. 1987. The Typology of Subordination in Georgian and Abkhaz.
3, G<>ttingen, S. 289-303. DIRR, A. 1915. hazov [Materials for the study of the language and mode oflife of the Abkhazians] . In: Sbornik materialov d/'a opisanija mestnostej i plemen Kavkaza, Tiflis. Vyp. 44, otd. 4, p. 5-23. BALKAROV, B. LW/M 119 80 Abkhaz DUMEZIL, G. 1932. Etudes comparatives sur les langues caucasiennes du nord-ouest (morphologie). Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, 262 pp. 1967. Documents anatoliens sur les langues et les traditions du Caucase, V. Etudes Abkhaz. BAH, XXI. Paris, 200 pp.
Abkhaz by Viacheslav A. Chirikba