W. Gosling (auth.)'s A First Course in Applied Electronics: An Introduction to PDF

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By W. Gosling (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1349023604

ISBN-13: 9781349023608

ISBN-10: 1349023620

ISBN-13: 9781349023622

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The input signal is then pulse-width modulated so that the average voltage across the load is sinusoidal. s. amplitude of the sinusoid? 1 Equivalent circuits An amplifier, as indicated in the previous chapter, is a device which controls or modulates the flow of power from an energy source to a load in accordance with a controlling input signal, the power level of which may be very small-even negligible. Obviously, no more power can flow to the load than the source is capable of giving, and in fact the ultimate limit on the performance of an amplifier must necessarily be determined by the characteristics of the energy source.

This is called a Nyquist plot. By the use of some simple geometry it is easy to show the shape of the Nyquist plot for a first-order system. In Fig. 6, 0 is the origin of polar co-ordinates, OB is the direction A o ~. 6 Vectorial relationship between Av(w) and Av(O) when both are plotted on the complex plane. 32 A FIRST COURSE IN APPLIED ELECTRONICS of zero angle, and A is the point corresponding to Ay(w). Thus OA = IAy(w)1 Ay(O) and the angle AOB = LAy(w). Consider OA OC where al(Ay(w» means the real part of Ay(w) and Ay(O) al(Ay(w» = 1 + (W/W2)2 But also Hence OA OC OB OA and the triangles OAC and OBA are similar.

2 Sources and types of noise Noise can arise in amplifiers from a variety of different processes. Some are rather trivial and can be dismissed quickly. f. Similarly the existence of a small stray capacitance between the input terminal of the amplifier and some conductor on 52 53 UNWANTED OUTPUTS which there is an appreciable alternating potential will result in the flow of a small unwanted alternating current into the amplifier input terminal. These effects are sometimes called stray pickup, and can be avoided by the use of screening.

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A First Course in Applied Electronics: An Introduction to Microelectronic Systems by W. Gosling (auth.)

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