By Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.
This booklet introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of analyzing three-D seismic info. the subjects it covers contain uncomplicated structural interpretation and map-making; using 3-D visualization tools; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by means of expert geophysicists with decades of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the ebook can be necessary for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum
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Extra info for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
7 Generation of multi-fold coverage during seismic surveys. As the survey proceeds, different combinations of shot and receiver record the same reflection point. The difference between the arrival times of the reflection from shot–receiver pairs with increasing separation allows subsurface velocities to be estimated. The addition of different traces with the same reflection point improves the signal to noise ratio of the final section. areas of the survey where the boat changed shooting direction may lead to stripes in the data.
21 is a hybrid pre-stack time migration approach and covers steps 15 to 28. The processing sequence comes from an area with relatively steep dips but without large lateral velocity variations. Therefore, pre-stack 49 3-D data processing Fig. 34 Examination of CMP gathers during an iteration of pre-stack depth migration. Pre-stack depth migration is required in areas of complex lateral velocity variation. In such areas the standard normal moveout equation is insufficient to align events owing to the different paths that the waves take through the subsurface.
Normally the data are written to tape at this stage in one of the designated industry formats so that the raw records are retained to form the basis of possible later reprocessing. If starting from field tapes, reformatting includes converting the data from standard industry format into whatever format the processing system uses. The second step, designature, takes the wavelet 36 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 5 to 25 m groups.
3-D Seismic Interpretation by Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.